South Africa
South Africa

— A major shift began in mid-1990s as part of shift from Apartheid to a genuine democracy at the national level.
— Before that a
different form of decentralization was used as an instrument of central control and racial division by the apartheid regime.
— Pre-1994, national,
provincial and municipal governments applied to whites to who controlled blacks outside reserves
— The system of reserves among blacks scattered the
opposition, created different regional and ethnic interests that prevented the growth of South African Nationalism, and to satisfy the political aspirations of the black majority.
— Policies and corruption brought economic crises in the
reserves and all urban areas.
— Lack of proper economic base and prohibition
from reserves lead to violence
— During 1982 to 1994, reviewed the policy
and began some reforms, like abolition of provincial legislatures, establishment of planning regions and regional service councils.
— The idea is to give
additional groups of blacks a stake in the system to preserve the divided system but no whites were willing to sacrifice, and system collapsed by 1994.
— As
per 1996 constitution in 2000 new decentralization began. Constitutional base became very vital to prevent abuse by Central government.
— Four tier system
of governance came into force. National govt. for security and economic policy, provinces for social services, districts and municipalities overlap over the obligations of provision of water, sewerage, electricity and other services.
— Certain level recentralization due to reduction from 800 transitional
councils to 231 municipalities.
— Resources are divided in a more equitable
and less arbitrary as per sharing formula
— L
ower tiers from council levies and property taxes.
— Balance of authority and finances is held by
provincial rather than local governments in accordance with the priorities of the African National Congress.
— Reforms are redistributive, owing to
equalization components across LGs.
— Improved intercommunity targeting,
interracial inequality
— Greater accountability of the politicians toward
constituents reduced corruption, but serious service problems of apartheid exists
— Imbalance between finances and
needs is a major problem
— Throughout a lack of enough resources in the system as a whole to meet the basic needs is the major problem.


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