8. SOUTH AFRICA
A major shift began in mid-1990s as part of shift from Apartheid to a genuine democracy at the national level.
Before that a different form of decentralization was used as an instrument of central control and racial division by the apartheid regime.
Pre-1994, national, provincial and municipal governments applied to whites to who controlled blacks outside reserves
The system of reserves among blacks scattered the opposition, created different regional and ethnic interests that prevented the growth of South African Nationalism, and to satisfy the political aspirations of the black majority.
Policies and corruption brought economic crises in the reserves and all urban areas.
Lack of proper economic base and prohibition from reserves lead to violence
During 1982 to 1994, reviewed the policy and began some reforms, like abolition of provincial legislatures, establishment of planning regions and regional service councils.
The idea is to give additional groups of blacks a stake in the system to preserve the divided system but no whites were willing to sacrifice, and system collapsed by 1994.
As per 1996 constitution in 2000 new decentralization began. Constitutional base became very vital to prevent abuse by Central government.
Four tier system of governance came into force. National govt. for security and economic policy, provinces for social services, districts and municipalities overlap over the obligations of provision of water, sewerage, electricity and other services.
Certain level recentralization due to reduction from 800 transitional councils to 231 municipalities.
Resources are divided in a more equitable and less arbitrary as per sharing formula
Lower tiers from council levies and property taxes.
Balance of authority and finances is held by provincial rather than local governments in accordance with the priorities of the African National Congress.
Reforms are redistributive, owing to equalization components across LGs.
Improved intercommunity targeting, interracial inequality
Greater accountability of the politicians toward constituents reduced corruption, but serious service problems of apartheid exists
Imbalance between finances and needs is a major problem
Throughout a lack of enough resources in the system as a whole to meet the basic needs is the major problem.
8. SOUTH AFRICA