Brazil Village

Brazil Village



— Transition during late 1980s, due to both internal and external forces.
— Back to democracy after 25 years of Military regime
— Tradition of strong provinces and municipalities
— Transition back to democracy resulted in regain of power by the elites.
— Poor economy lead to poverty and exclusion in the cities increased.
— Numerous associations are formed because of decentralization resulted in a series of social movements
— The debt crisis in 1980 gave IMF and World Bank with fiscal austerity concerns, to pressure harder for transfer of government responsibilities.
— And so the Center transferred social-services to local levels.
— Ideology of less centralized governments are less bureaucratic, more efficient, and more responsive.
— The 1988 constitution who is influenced by pressures from groups such as regional elites, and international agencies.
— Indicators of public education increased
— The disparity between regions decreased
— Improvement in IMR and life expectancy in health indicators but increase in interregional disparities.
— Disparities in budget size between small and large municipalities and backward and less backward regions increased.
— Democratic innovations like participatory budgeting of Porto Alegre, there by improved public service delivery ( Porot Alegre, is better off place with an active Civil Society)
— Four transformations of 1988 constitution
— Greater political autonomy to local governments
— Greater fiscal autonomy from the Union and responsible social delivery
— Rise of tax revenues from 11 to 13 percent between 1987 and 1991, spending from 11 to 16 percent.
— Fiscal problems of 1990s led to some degree fo recentralization in 1994 with curbs on fiscal transfers to states and on public spending.
— Degree of

fiscal autonomy is high by international standards but poorer municipalities dependence exceeded 90%.



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