Indonesia borobudur temple

Indonesia borobudur temple

— Big-bang decentralization in 2001 after fall of Suharto in 1998 is the political choice of Habibie to sustain himself and safeguard the country from disintegration.
— To get support from regional representatives in parliament and attenuate separatist tendencies.
— It is not first attempt but recurrent.
— 1966 to 1998 experienced highly centralized regime characterized by high levels of corruption and low bureaucratic efficiency.
— It is also a strategy to bypass provinces that are the center of regional unrest, sense of easy controlling of local governments
— Local governments were given health, education, infrastructure, and environmental services. Provinces were given minor role.
— Formula based general allocation grants replaced the earmarked funds, which form 95% of budgets of local governments
— 2/3rds of civil servants were transferred from the center to the local governments, whose expenses are to be born by them but cannot hire or fire.
— Centre government can annul local laws and regulations if they conflict with national ones. The district head can be dismissed by regional legislatures. (6% of heads were dismissed in this fashion)
— To study their effectiveness the indicators of citizen perception and public-service delivery are taken, significant improvements were found.
— In recruitment of personnel corruption continued both at district and local level.
— Perceptions of corruption and quality of governance were positively correlated with ethnic and political fragmentation but uncorrelated with local per capita income, inequality, poverty, or education levels.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s