The size of population is 2.8 billion (half of world population)
Political and economic aspects of decentralization is focused equally.
II. MODES OF TRANSITION
SINGULAR TRANSITION – Brazil, Indonesia, Bolivia, India, and Uganda
PERIODIC ALTERATION BETWEEN MORE AND LESS DECENTRALIZED GOVERNANCE– Pakistan, China
ONE FORM OF DECENTRALIZATION TO THE OTHER – South Africa
III. SINGULAR TRANSITION
BRAZIL & INDONESIA
Wider transition to democracy from dictatorship at the national level.
More dispersal of political and economic powers
BOLIVIA & INDIA
Transition due to widely shared dissatisfaction with centralized mode of governance, and with rising political competition among national and regional parties
Decentralization is the instrument of consolidation of power of a new military government.