ALTERATION BETWEEN MORE OR LESS DECENTRALIZED GOVERNANCE

Village of North Pakistan
Village of North Pakistan

7.PAKISTAN
—
Decentralization reforms were introduced pre and post independence, by Gen. Zia, Gen. Ayub and Musharraf in 2000 and 2001
— Originally introduced by British
govt. to develop loyal land owning elites to develop indigenous rural client base for the non representative center.
— Gen. Ayub dissolved all higher
tier governments and established local governments as the only representative tier, made these 80,000 as the electoral college for election of the President.
— Fa
voring rural areas was maintained since they are main source of support
— Under Bhutto began to wane, again under Zia there was a revival in role.

— Subservient to provincial governments headed by military officers.

—
General Zia also continued to insist on partyless elections, despite the emergence of mass-based political parties in 1970s.
— Rural bias tilted
during Zia period, and large disparities between rural and urban areas in both revenues and expenditures appeared.
— A decade between 1988 and 1
998 again witnessed a decline as there was a conflict between provincial and local governments as alternative patronage machines, and all local bodies were suspended between 1993 and 1998.
— Democracy centralized. It is an example
where the national and local governments are negatively correlated.
— In
1998 with the return of the General Musharraf, again local governments revitalized to secure legitimacy to his regime, co-opt regional elites, reduce the authority of provincial governments, manipulate interregional allocations.
— Provincial bureaucrats were made sub-ordinate to elected nazims of
district-level governments, transferred the vast majority of public services to district governments,
— Introduced rule-based fiscal transfers which reduced
urban-rural disparities, greater wt. was given to backward regions
—
Introduced reservation to peasants and women in these elected bodies.
—
District governments had little local revenue and with high establishment charges on they have no control over.
— Sus
tainability of reforms are under question due to time-bound constitutional protection and emerging conflicts between provincial and district level and also between central bureaucracy and elected local government officials on the other.
— Prior to this, i
ts IMR is highest in South Asia, quality and quantity of education is poor, gross enrollment has not improved, teacher’s absenteeism is very high.
— Political competition lead to provide boy’s schools, neither school quality nor girls’ schools improved.

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