Decentralization reforms were introduced pre and post independence, by Gen. Zia, Gen. Ayub and Musharraf in 2000 and 2001
Originally introduced by British govt. to develop loyal land owning elites to develop indigenous rural client base for the non representative center.
Gen. Ayub dissolved all higher tier governments and established local governments as the only representative tier, made these 80,000 as the electoral college for election of the President.
Favoring rural areas was maintained since they are main source of support
Under Bhutto began to wane, again under Zia there was a revival in role.
Subservient to provincial governments headed by military officers.
General Zia also continued to insist on partyless elections, despite the emergence of mass-based political parties in 1970s.
Rural bias tilted during Zia period, and large disparities between rural and urban areas in both revenues and expenditures appeared.
A decade between 1988 and 1998 again witnessed a decline as there was a conflict between provincial and local governments as alternative patronage machines, and all local bodies were suspended between 1993 and 1998.
Democracy centralized. It is an example where the national and local governments are negatively correlated.
In 1998 with the return of the General Musharraf, again local governments revitalized to secure legitimacy to his regime, co-opt regional elites, reduce the authority of provincial governments, manipulate interregional allocations.
Provincial bureaucrats were made sub-ordinate to elected nazims of district-level governments, transferred the vast majority of public services to district governments,
Introduced rule-based fiscal transfers which reduced urban-rural disparities, greater wt. was given to backward regions
Introduced reservation to peasants and women in these elected bodies.
District governments had little local revenue and with high establishment charges on they have no control over.
Sustainability of reforms are under question due to time-bound constitutional protection and emerging conflicts between provincial and district level and also between central bureaucracy and elected local government officials on the other.
Prior to this, its IMR is highest in South Asia, quality and quantity of education is poor, gross enrollment has not improved, teacher’s absenteeism is very high.
Political competition lead to provide boy’s schools, neither school quality nor girls’ schools improved.